A lot of people in the United States are coffee drinkers.
Over the last few years, a trend has been developing to introduce premium, specially blended coffees, known as “gourmet coffees” into the American market.
Boston seems to have been the birthplace of this trend.
In fact, major gourmet coffee merchants from other cities like Seattle and San Francisco came to Boston, where today they’re engaged in a kind of “coffee war” with Boston’s merchants.
事實上，大多數來自其他的城市諸如Seattle 和 San Francisco的美味咖啡商人們來到了Boston，今天他們在這裡參與進了同Boston的商人們的某種「咖啡戰爭」
They are all competing for a significant share of the gourmet coffee market.
Surprisingly, the competition among these leading gourmet coffee businesses will not hurt any of them.
Experts predict that the gourmet coffee market in the United States is growing and will continue to grow, to the point that gourmet coffee will soon capture half of what is now a 1.5-million-dollar market and will be an 8-million-dollar market by 1999.
Studies have shown that coffee drinkers who convert to gourmet coffee seldom go back to the regular brands found in supermarkets.
As a result, these brands will be the real losers in the gourmet coffee competition.
You may remember that a few weeks ago we discussed the question of what photography is.
Is it art, or is it a method of reproducing images? Do photographs belong in museums or just in our homes?
Today I want to talk about a person who tried to make his professional life an answer to such questions.
Alfred Stieglitz went from the United States to Germany to study engineering.
While he was there, he became interested in photography and began to experiment with his camera.
He took pictures under conditions that most photographers considered too difficult.
He took them at night, in the rain, and of people and objects reflected in windows.
When he returned to the United States he continued these revolutionary efforts.
Stieglitz was the first person to photograph skyscrapers, clouds, and views from an airplane.
What Stieglitz was trying to do in these photographs was what he tried to do throughout his life: make photography an art.
He felt that photography could be just as good a form of self-expression as painting or drawing.
For Stieglitz, his camera was his brush.
While many photographers of the late 1800’s and early 1900’s thought of their work as a reproduction of identical images, Stieglitz saw his as a creative art form.
He understood the power of the camera to capture the moment.
In fact, he never retouched his prints or made copies of them.
If he were in this classroom today, I’m sure he’d say, “Well, painters don’t normally make extra copies of their paintings, do they?”
So, uh . . . as Jim said, James Polk was the eleventh President, and . . . uh . . . well, my report’s about the next President—Zachary Taylor. Taylor was elected in 1849.
那麼，呃……就像Jim所說，James Polk曾經是第十一任總統，並且……呃……好，我的報告是關於下任總統– Zachary Taylor。Taylor於1849年當選。
It’s surprising because . . . well, he was the first President that didn’t have any previous political experience.
The main reason he was chosen as a candidate was because he was a war hero.
In the army, his men called him “Old Rough and Ready”. I guess because of his . . . “rough edges.”
He was kind of blunt and he didn’t really look like a military hero.
He liked to do things like wear civilian clothes instead of a uniform, even in battle.
And he was so short and plump he had to be lifted up onto his horse.
But he did win a lot of battles and he became more and more popular.
So, the Whig party decided to nominate him for the presidency, even though no one knew anything about where he stood on the issues.
I couldn’t find much about his accomplishments, probably because he was only in office about a year and a half before he died.
But one thing, he pushed for the development of the transcontinental railroad because he thought it was important to form a link with the West Coast.
There was a lot of wealth in California and Oregon from commerce and minerals and stuff.
在California 和 Oregon有大量的源自商業和礦產等的財富。
Also, he established an agricultural bureau in the Department of the Interior and promoted more government aid to agriculture.
Well, that’s about all I found. Like I said, he died in office in 1850, so his Vice President took over, and that’s the next report, so . . . thank you.
I want to welcome each and every balloon enthusiast to Philadelphia.
Thank you for coming here this morning to commemorate the first balloon voyage in the United States.
On January 9, 1793, at ten o’clock in the morning, a silk balloon lifted into the skies above this city, which was, at the time, the capital of the country.
According to the original records of the flight, the voyage lasted forty-six minutes, from its departure in Philadelphia to its landing across the Delaware River in New Jersey.
Though our pilots today will try to approximate the original landing site, they’re at the mercy of the winds, so who knows where they’ll drift off to.
Even the balloonist in 1793 experienced some uncertain weather that day.
There were clouds, fog, and mist in various directions.
Our reenactment promises to be nothing less than spectacular.
The yellow balloon directly behind me is five stories high.
It’s inflated with helium, unlike the original, which was filled with hydrogen and, unbeknownst to the pilot, potentially explosive.
Gas-filled models are pretty uncommon now because of the extremely high cost, so the eighty other balloons in today’s launch are hot air, heated by propane burners.
These balloons are from all over the country.
I’m glad you brought up the question of our investigations into the makeup of the Earth’s interior.
In fact, since this is the topic of your reading assignment for next time, let me spend these last few minutes of class talking about it.
There were several important discoveries in the early part of this century that helped geologists develop a more accurate picture of the Earth’s interior.
The first key discovery had to do with seismic waves.
Remember they are the vibrations caused by earthquakes.
Well, scientists found that they traveled thousands of miles through the Earth’s interior.
This finding enabled geologists to study the inner parts of the Earth.
You see, these studies revealed that these vibrations were of two types: compression or P waves and shear or S waves.
And researchers found that P waves travel through both liquids and solids, while S waves travel only through solid matter.
In 1906, a British geologist discovered that P waves slowed down at a certain depth but kept traveling deeper.
On the other hand, S waves either disappeared or were reflected back, so he concluded that the depth marked the boundary between a solid mantle and a liquid core.
Three years later, another boundary was discovered that between the mantle and the Earth’s crust.
There’s still a lot to be learned about the Earth.
For instance, geologists know that the core is hot. Evidence of this is the molten lava that flows out of volcanoes. But we’re still not sure what the source of the heat is.
Today we’re going to practice evaluating the main tool used when addressing groups—the voice.
There are three main elements that combine to create either a positive or negative experience for listeners.
They can result in a voice that is pleasing to listen to and can be used effectively.
Or they can create a voice that doesn’t hold attention, or even worse, causes an adverse reaction.
The three elements are volume, pitch, and pace.
When evaluating volume, keep in mind that a good speaker will adjust to the size of both the room and the audience.
Of course, with an amplifying device like a microphone, the speaker can use a natural tone.
But speakers should not be dependent on microphones; a good speaker can speak loudly without shouting.
The second element, pitch, is related to the highness or lowness of the sounds.
High pitches are, for most people, more difficult to listen to, so in general speakers should use the lower registers of their voice.
During a presentation, it’s important to vary pitch to some extent in order to maintain interest.
The third element, pace, that is how fast or slow words and sounds are articulated, should also be varied.
A slower pace can be used to emphasize important points.
Note that the time spent not speaking can be meaningful, too.
Pauses ought to be used to signal transitions or create anticipation.
Because a pause gives the listeners time to think about what was just said or even to predict what might come next, it can be very effective when moving from one topic to another.
What I’d like you to do now is watch and listen to a videotape and use the forms I gave you to rate the speaking voices you hear.
Then tonight I want you to go home and read a passage into a tape recorder and evaluate your own voice.
Let’s proceed to the main exhibit hall and look at some of the actual vehicles that have played a prominent role in speeding up mail delivery.
Consider how long it used to take to send a letter across a relatively short distance.
Back in the 1600’s it took two weeks on horseback to get a letter from Boston to New York, a distance of about 260 miles.
Crossing a river was also a challenge.
Ferry service was so irregular that a carrier would sometimes wait hours just to catch a ferry.
For journeys inland, there was always the stagecoach, but the ride was by no means comfortable because it had to be shared with other passengers.
The post office was pretty ingenious about some routes.
In the nineteenth century, in the Southwestern desert, for instance, camels were brought in to help get the mail through.
In Alaska, reindeer were used.
This practice was discontinued because of the disagreeable temperament of these animals.
We’ll stop here a minute so that you can enter this replica of a railway mail car.
It was during the Age of the Iron Horse that delivery really started to pick up, in fact, the United States transported most bulk mail by train for nearly 100 years.
The first airmail service didn’t start until 1918.第一次航空郵件服務（沒有開始）直到1918年才開始。
Please take a few moments to look around.
I hope you’ll enjoy your tour.
And as you continue on your own, may I suggest you visit our impressive philatelic collection.
Not only can you look at some of the more unusual stamps issues, but there is an interesting exhibit on how stamps are made.
Most people think of astronomers as people who spend their time in cold observatories peering through telescopes every night.
In fact, a typical astronomer spends most of his or her time analyzing data and may only be at the telescope a few weeks of the year.
Some astronomers work on purely theoretical problems and never use a telescope at all.
You might not know how rarely images are viewed directly through telescopes.
The most common way to observe the skies is to photograph them.
The process is very simple.
First, a photographic plate is coated with a light-sensitive material.
The plate is positioned so that the image received by the telescope is recorded on it.
Then the image can be developed, enlarged, and published so that many people can study it.
Because most astronomical objects are very remote, the light we receive from them is rather feeble.
But by using a telescope as a camera, long time exposures can be made.
In this way, objects can be photographed that are a hundred times too faint to be seen by just looking through a telescope.
Before we start our first lab, I’d like to tell you a little bit about the workbook we’ll be using.
The first thing I’d like to point out is that the workbook contains a very large amount of material, far more than you could ever handle in a single semester.
What you’re supposed to do is choose the experiments and activities that you want to do—within a certain framework, of course.
Part of my job is to help you make your choices.
Next, I’d like to mention that in each workbook chapter, there are usually two subsections.
The first is called “Experiments” and the second is called “Activities.”
In the “Experiments” section, the workbook gives full instructions for all the experiments, including alternate procedures.
Choose the procedure you wish—there’s plenty of equipment available.
In the “Activities” section, you will find suggestions for projects that you could do on your own time.
You’ll see that there are usually no detailed instructions for the activities—you’re supposed to do them your own way.
If there are no questions, let’s turn to Chapter One now.
Do you have trouble sleeping at night?
Then maybe this is for you.
When you worry about needing sleep and toss and turn trying to find a comfortable position, you’re probably only making matters worse.
What happens when you do that，is that your heart rate actually increases, making it more difficult to relax.
You may also have some bad habits that contribute to the problem.
Do you rest frequently during the day?
Do you get virtually no exercise, or do you exercise strenuously late in the day?
Are you preoccupied with sleep, or do you sleep late on weekends?
Any or all of these factors might be leading to your insomnia by disrupting your body’s natural rhythm.
What should you do, then, on those sleepless nights?
Don’t bother with sleeping pills.
They can actually cause worse insomnia later.
The best thing to do is drink milk or eat cheese or tuna fish.
These are all rich in amino acids and help produce a neurotransmitter in the brain that induces sleep.
This neurotransmitter will help you relax, and you’ll be on your way to getting a good night’s sleep.
Until tomorrow’s broadcast, this has been another in the series “Hints for Good Health.”