Today we’ll examine the role that private transportation, namely, the automobile plays in city planning.
A number of sociologists blame the automobile for the decline of the downtown areas of major cities.
In the 1950’s and 1960’s the automobile made it possible to work in the city and yet live in the suburbs many miles away.
Shopping patterns changed: instead of patronizing downtown stores, people in the suburbs went to large shopping malls outside the city and closer to home.
Merchants in the city failed; and their stores closed. Downtown shopping areas became deserted.
In recent years there’s been a rebirth of the downtown areas, as many suburbanites have moved back to the city.
They’ve done this, of course, to avoid highways clogged with commuters from the suburbs.
I’ve chosen this particular city planning problem—our dependence on private transportation to discuss in groups.
I’m hoping you all will come up with some innovative solutions.
Oh, and don’t approach the problem from a purely sociological perspective; try to take into account environmental and economic issues as well.
Word comes from California of a new weapon in the war on household pests.
Two scientists working for a firm in Anaheim, California, have developed a method to eliminate insects without using dangerous chemicals.
The new poison? Hot air.
The basic idea is that insects cannot adjust to temperatures much above normal.
In laboratory experiments, cockroaches and termites can’t survive much more than a quarter of an hour at 125 degrees Fahrenheit, or about 50 degrees centigrade.
The new method involves covering a house with a huge tent and filling it with air heated to around 65 degrees centigrade.
Hot air is forced in with fans, and the tent keeps the heat inside the house.
Since termites try to escape by hiding in wooden beams, the heat treatment must be continued for a full six hours.
But when it’s all over, and the insects are dead, there are no toxic residues to endanger humans or pets, and no funny smells.
Scientists claim that there is no danger of fire, either, since very few household materials will burn at 65 degrees centigrade.
In fact, wood is prepared for construction use by drying it in ovens at 80 degree centigrade, which is substantially hotter than the air used in this procedure.
I’m sure you realize that your research papers are due in six weeks.
I’ve looked at your proposed topics and made comments about them.
The most frequent problem was proposing too broad a topic.
Remember, this is only a fifteen-page paper.
As I return your topic papers, I’d like to look over the schedule which sketches out what we’ll do during the next two weeks.
Today is Monday; by Friday, I want your preliminary outline.
Please be sure to incorporate the suggestions I’ve made on your topics in your outlines.
Next week I’ll have a conference with each of you.
I’ve posted a schedule on my office door.
Sign your name to indicate the time you’re available for an appointment.
In the conference, we’ll discuss your preliminary outline.
Then you can make the necessary revisions and hand in your final outline, which is due two weeks from today.
Use the outline style in your textbook and remember it should be no more than two pages long.
Be sure to begin with a thesis statement, that is, with a precise statement of the point you intend to prove and include a conclusion.
Have you got all that?
Your two-page preliminary outlines are due at the end of this week and the final outlines are due after your conferences.
Follow the textbook style and include a thesis statement and a conclusion.
Before we begin our tour, I’d like to give you some background information on the painter Grant Wood.
We’ll be seeing much of his work today.
Wood was born in 1881 in Iowa farm country, and became interested in art very early in life.
Although he studied art in both Minneapolis and at the Art Institute of Chicago, the strongest influences on his art were European.
He spent time in both Germany and France and his study there helped shape his own stylized form of realism.
When he returned to Iowa, Wood applied the stylistic realism he had learned in Europe to the rural life he saw around him and that he remembered from his childhood around the turn of the century.
His portraits of farm families imitate the static formalism of photographs of early settlers posed in front of their homes.
His paintings of farmers at work, and of their tools and animals, demonstrate a serious respect for the life of the Midwestern United States.
By the 1930’s, Wood was a leading figure of the school of art called “American regionalism.”
In an effort to sustain a strong Midwestern artistic movement, Wood established an institute of Midwestern art in his home state.
Although the institute failed, the paintings you are about to see preserve Wood’s vision of pioneer farmers.
In today’s class we’ll be examining some nineteenth-century pattern books that were used for building houses.
I think it’s fair to say that these pattern books were the most important influence on the design of North American houses during the nineteenth century.
This was because most people who wanted to build a house couldn’t afford to hire an architect.
Instead, they bought a pattern book, picked out a plan, and took it to the builder.
The difference in cost was substantial.
In 1870, for example, hiring an architect would’ve cost about a hundred dollars.
At the same time, a pattern book written by an architect cost only five dollars.
At that price, it’s easy to see why pattern books were so popular.
Some are back in print again today, and of course they cost a lot more than they did a hundred years ago.
But they’re an invaluable resource for historians, and also for people who restore old houses.
I have a modern reprint here that I’ll be passing around the room in a moment so that everyone can have a look.
When I was in British Columbia last July working at the department’s archaeological dig, I saw the weirdest rainbow.
At first I couldn’t believe my eyes because the bands of color I saw weren’t in a single half circle arc across the sky.
Instead, I saw a full circle of rainbow hues hanging in the sky just above the sea.
Inside the circle there was a big white disc and above the circle there was another round band of colors forming a halo.
There were curved legs of multicolored light coming off the sides of the circles.
It was an incredible sight.
I ran back to our main camp and tried to get our cook to come with me to see my fantastic find before it disappeared.
He just laughed at my excited story and told me that what I saw was nothing special, just some “sun dogs.”
He said I’d be sure to see many more before I left.
And sure enough, I did.
When I got back from the dig, I asked Professor Clark about the “sun dogs,” and she’s going to tell us more about them.
It seems like only yesterday that I was sitting where you are, just finishing my first year of medical school and wondering if I’d ever get a chance to use all my new knowledge on a real live patient!
Well, I have good news for you!
You don’t have to wait until your third or fourth year of medical school to get some hands-on experience!
The dean has invited me here to tell you about the university’s rural opportunity program.
If you enroll in this program, you can have the opportunity this summer, after your first year of medical school, to spend from four to six weeks observing and assisting a real physician like me in a small rural community.
You won’t have to compete with other students for time and attention, and you can see what life as a country doctor is really like.
The program was designed to encourage medical students like yourselves to consider careers in rural communities that are still understaffed.
It seems that medical students are afraid to go into rural family practice for two reasons.
First, they don’t know much about it.
And second, specialists in the cities usually make more money.
But, on the up-side, in rural practice, doctors can really get to know their patients and be respected members of the community.
I participated in the program when it first started and spent six weeks in a small rural town.
Let me tell you, it was really great!
I got to work with real patients.
I watched the birth of a child, assisted an accident victim, and had lots of really practical hands-on experience—all in one summer.
And to my surprise, I found that country life has a lot to offer that city life doesn’t—no pollution or traffic jams, for instance!
My experience made me want to work where I’m needed and appreciated.
I don’t miss the city at all!
In the few minutes that remain of today’s class, I’d like to discuss next week’s schedule with you.
Because I’m presenting a paper at a conference in Detroit on Thursday, I won’t be here for either Wednesday’s or Friday’s class.
I will, however, be here for Monday’s. Next Friday, a week from today, is the midterm exam, marking the halfway point in the semester.
Professor Andrews has agreed to administer the exam.
In place of the usual Wednesday class, I’ve arranged an optional review session.
Since it is optional, attendance will not be taken; however, attending the class would be a good idea for those worried about the midterm.
So, remember: optional class next Wednesday; midterm, Friday.
Today’s lecture will center on prehistoric people of the Nevada desert.
Now, most of these prehistoric desert people moved across the countryside throughout the year.
You might think that they were wandering aimlessly—far from it!
They actually followed a series of carefully planned moves.
Where they moved depended on where food was available—places where plants were ripening or fish were spawning.
Now often when these people moved, they carried all their possessions on their backs, but if the journey was long, extra food and tools were sometimes stored in caves or beneath rocks.
One of these caves is now an exciting archaeological site.
Beyond its small opening is a huge underground grotto.
Even though the cave’s very large, it was certainly too dark and dusty for the travelers to live in, but it was a great place to hide things, and tremendous amounts of food supplies and artifacts have been found there.
The food includes dried fish, seeds, and nuts.
The artifacts include stone spear points and knives; the spear points are actually rather small.
Here’s a picture of some that were found. You can see their size in relation to the hands holding them.
To us, the environment in which fish dwell often seems cold, dark, and mysterious.
But there are advantages to living in water, and they have played an important role in making fish what they are.
One is that water isn’t subject to sudden temperature changes.
Therefore it makes an excellent habitat for a cold-blooded animal.
Another advantage is the water’s ability to easily support body weight.
Protoplasm has approximately the same density as water, so a fish in water is almost weightless.
This “weightlessness” in turn means two things: One, a fish can get along with a light weight and simple bone structure, and two, limitations to a fish’s size are practically removed.
Yet there is one basic difficulty to living in water—the fact that it’s incompressible.
For a fish to move through water, it must actually shove it aside. Most can do this by wiggling back and forth in snakelike motion.
The fish pushes water aside by the forward motion of its head, and with the curve of its body and its flexible tail.
Next, the water flows back along the fish’s narrowing sides, closing in at the tail, and helping the fish propel itself forward.
The fact that water is incompressible has literally shaped the development of fish.
A flat and angular shape can be moved through water only with difficulty.
And for this reason, fish have a basic shape that is beautifully adapted to deal with this peculiarity.
Current studies show that what goes on labels is an important consideration for manufacturers, since more than seventy percent of shoppers read food labels when considering whether to buy a product.
A recent controversy as to whether labels on prepared foods should educate or merely inform the consumer is over, and a consumer group got its way.
The group had maintained that product labels should do more than simply list how many grams of nutrients a food contains.
Their contention was that labels should also list the percentage of a day’s total nutrients that the product will supply to the consumer, because this information is essential in planning a healthy diet.
A government agency disagreed strongly, favoring a label that merely informs the consumer, in other words, a label that only lists the contents of the products.
The agency maintained that consumers could decide for themselves if the food is nutritious and is meeting their daily needs.
The consumer group, in supporting its case, had cited a survey in which shoppers were shown a food label, and were then asked if they would need more or less of a certain nutrient after eating a serving of this product.
The shoppers weren’t able to answer the questions easily when they were not given a specific percentage.
This study， and others helped get the new regulation passed, and now food products must have the more detailed labels.
Good afternoon. I’m here today to talk to you about a career with our airline.
We’re especially interested in recruiting people to fill openings for flight attendants.
First of all, to work as a flight attendant with us, you must be accepted into our training program and with so many people applying, it’s not easy to be selected.
From the thousands of applications that we receive annually, we choose fewer than a thousand people for training.
So, we require experience serving the public; and it also helps if you’ve earned some college credits.
Also, not everybody who gets accepted into the training program makes it through.
The course meets six days a week for five weeks.
The training includes extensive classroom work in such subjects as first aid and passenger psychology as well as practical training in flight procedures and meal service.
A lot of our graduates say that our flight attendants develop the skills of a nurse, a headwaiter, and a public relations executive!
But, as a flight attendant myself, I can say that all of the hard work is worth it.
Of course, I get to travel throughout the country, and the airline pays all of my expenses while I’m away from my base station.
And, what I like best of all is that I’ve made friends with people from all over the country!
Today I want to talk about the Earth’s last major climatic shift, at the end of the last ice age.
But first, let’s back up a moment and review what we know about climatic change in general.
First, we defined “climate” as consistent patterns of weather over significant periods of time.
In general, changes in climate occur when the energy balance of the Earth is disturbed.
Solar energy enters the Earth’s atmosphere as light and is radiated by the Earth’s surface as heat.
Land, water, and ice each affect this energy exchange differently.
The system is so complex that to date, our best computer models are only crude approximations and are not sophisticated enough to test hypotheses about the causes of climatic change.
Of course, that doesn’t keep us from speculating.
For instance, volcanic activity is one mechanism that might affect climatic change.
When large volcanoes erupt, they disperse tons of particles into the upper atmosphere, where the particles then reflect light.
Since less light is entering the system of energy exchange, the result would be a cooling of the Earth’s surface.
Of course, this is just one possible mechanism of global climate change.
In all probability, a complete explanation would involve several different mechanisms operating at the same time.
I know you’re anxious to get your permits and get started.
But there’re just a few things I’d like to mention that might help you avoid trouble during your stay.
First of all, make sure you carry adequate water.
You’ll need it if you’re hiking, especially in this heat.
A good rule of thumb is to bring one gallon per person per day this time of year.
Don’t try to rely on the park’s natural springs to supply all your water needs.
And please, do not use soap in the springs.
It’s your responsibility to protect the park’s natural features.
For those of you staying beyond the weekend, make sure that you set up camp well away from dry creek beds.
We may get some heavy rainfall, and those creekbeds could quickly become filled with water, and you and all your equipment might end up washed downstream.
When you pick up your permits, you’ll also get a park services booklet.
It’ll tell you everything you need to know about the hiking trails.
They vary in length, of course, but most of them are under five miles—relatively easy day hikes.
Remember, if you’re hiking solo, make sure you let someone know you’re going and when they can expect you back.
And . . . uh, for your own safety, we recommend that you not climb rock faces.
A lot of the rock throughout the park is very unstable.
One final word: watch out for poisonous snakes. Rattlesnake activity is at its peak this time of year, especially at night.
For your own good, we recommend wearing protective clothing and carry a flashlight after dark.
Last week we talked about Anne Bradstreet and the role of women in the Puritan colonies.
Today I want to talk about some other women who’ve contributed to American history—some famous and some not-so-famous.
The first woman I’d like to talk about is Molly Pitcher.
Those of you who are familiar with the name may know her as a hero of the American Revolution.
But, in fact, there never was a woman named Molly Pitcher.
Her real name was actually Mary Ludwig Hays.
她真正的名字實際上是Mary Ludwig Hays。
She got the nickname Molly Pitcher for her acts of bravery during the Revolutionary War.
As the story goes, when Mary’s—or Molly’s—husband, John Hays, enlisted in the artillery, Mary followed, like many other wives did.
據說，當Mary的—或者說 Molly的—丈夫，John Hays，應徵參加了炮兵，Mary跟隨而去，像很多其他的妻子那樣。
She helped out doing washing and cooking for the soldiers.
She was known to be a pretty unusual woman.
She smoked a pipe and chewed tobacco.
Anyway, in the summer of 1778, at the Battle of Monmouth, it was a blistering hot day, maybe over a hundred degrees, and fifty soldiers died of thirst during the battle.
Molly wasn’t content to stay back at camp.
Instead, she ran through gunshots and cannon fire carrying water in pitchers from a small stream out to the thirsty American soldiers.
The relief that she brought with her pitchers of water gave her the legendary nickname Molly Pitcher.
The story also says that she continued to load and fire her husband’s cannon after he was wounded.
They say she was so well liked by the other soldiers that they call her “Sergeant Molly.”
In fact, legend has it that George Washington himself gave her the special military title.
Today we’re going to talk about shyness and discuss recent research on ways to help children learn to interact socially.
Many people consider themselves shy.
In fact, forty percent of people who took part in our survey said they were shy.
That’s two out of every five people.
And there are studies to indicate that the tendency toward shyness may be inherited.
But just because certain children are timid, doesn’t mean they are doomed to be shy forever.
There are things parents, teachers, and the children themselves can do to overcome this tendency and even to prevent it.
One researcher found that if parents gently push their shy children to try new things, they can help these children become less afraid and less inhibited.
Another way to help shy children is to train them in social skills.
For example, there are special training groups where children are taught things like looking at other children while talking to them, talking about other people’s interests, and even smiling.
These groups have been very successful at giving shy children a place to feel safe and accepted, and at building up their self-esteem.
We’ve just seen two contemporary large birds that cannot fly: the emu and the ostrich.
Over here is an interesting specimen from the past.
This stuffed animal is not the giant penguin it appears to be, but an auk.
This particular kind of auk is very rare, only 78 skins are known to exist and most are not preserved as well as this one.
The great auk, as you can see, was a rather large bird, and it couldn’t fly either.
However, evidence suggests that the auk was an excellent swimmer and diver.
Unfortunately, those abilities did not protect it from being easy prey for hungry sailors who years ago sailed the very cold and often icy waters of Greenland, Iceland, and Scotland.
不幸的是，這些能力並沒有防止它成為多年前航行在非常寒冷而且經常結冰的Greenland, Iceland, 和 Scotland的水域的飢餓的水手們容易捕獲的獵物。
In fact, records indicate that the auk was rather tasty and that its eggs.
Excuse me . . . that its eggs and feathers were useful as well.
Still, it isn’t clear what other factors led to the big bird’s demise around 1844, the last time anyone reported seeing one.
Of course, we believe it’s important to take extra precautions to preserve the remaining great auk skins.
After all, these specimens should prove invaluable for future scientific research.
Does anyone have any questions before we move on to our next bird exhibit?
I’d like to begin by thanking Dr. Kane for inviting me to be here today.
Although I’m not a geologist, I have been collecting minerals for years.
My collection is really diverse because I’ve traveled all over the world to find them.
Today I’ve brought a few specimens for you to see.
After I discuss each one, I’ll pass it around so that you can look at it more closely.
As you know, feldspars are the most abundant minerals and are divided into a number of types.
These first samples are orthoclases.
Notice that they vary in color from white to pink to red.
This glassy one is found in volcanic rock.
In fact, I found it in New Mexico on a collecting trip.
This next sample that I’ll pass around is a microcline mineral, also called amazonstone.
You can identify it by its bright green color.
It’s often used in jewelry and really is quite attractive.
These final samples are all plagioclase feldspars.
Many plagioclases are very rare, so I’m particularly proud of the variety in my collection.
I’ve also brought a few slides of some larger mineral samples, and if you’ll turn out the light now, I’d like to show them to you.
Welcome to Yellowstone National Park.
Before we begin our nature walk today, I’d like to give you a short history of our National Park Service.
The National Park Service began in the late 1800’s.
A small group of explorers had just completed a month-long exploration of the region that is now Yellowstone.
They gathered around a campfire, and after hours of discussion, they decided that they should not claim this land for themselves.
They felt it should be accessible to everyone.
So they began a campaign to preserve this land for everyone’s enjoyment.
Two years later, in the late nineteenth century, an act of Congress signed by President Ulysses S. Grant proclaimed the Yellowstone region a public park.
兩年後，在十九世紀晚期，一項被Ulysses S Grant簽署了的國會法案宣告了黃石地區為公眾公園。
It was the first national park in the world.
After Yellowstone became a public park, many other areas of great scenic importance were set aside, and in 1916 the National Park Service was established to manage these parks.
As a park ranger, I am an employee of the National Park Service.
In a national park, park rangers are on duty at all times to answer questions and help visitors in any difficulty.
Nature walks, guided tours, and campfire talks are offered by specially trained staff members.
The park service also protects the animals and plants within the parks.
I need to make sure you understand how to get housing for next year.
When you entered as first-year students this year, the school assigned you to a dorm and a roommate, but next year as returning students you’ll choose both your roommate and your dorm.
But whether or not you actually get to live in your first choice depends on what number you or your roommate draws in the lottery system.
The system gives priority to the students who have been here longest.
Fourth-year students get the first block of numbers, third-years get the second block, and second-years—like you’ll be—get the third.
The lower the number you draw, the sooner you choose.
Number one gets the first choice; number two gets the second choice, and so on.
You can use either your own or your intended roommate’s number to make your room choice.
If your roommate for next year has been at the school longer than you have, they’ll be in a better block of numbers and so will have a better number than any second-year student.
But most of you will probably be rooming with other second-year students and so neither of you may have a great number.
You may not get into your first or even second choice.
Of course, if you’ve made plans to live off campus, you don’t need to enter the lottery at all.
Dorm space will be especially tight this year because the dorms on North Campus will be closed for renovations.
This means that those of you who draw the worst numbers won’t be able to get dorm housing at all.
In that case, the housing office will help you find off-campus housing.