Community service is an important component of education here at our university.
We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate.
A new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’ve fallen behind.
You education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching—that is, tutoring in math and English.
You’d have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester. You can choose to help a child with math, English, or both.
Half-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days a week.
Professor Dodge will act as a mentor to the tutors—he’ll be available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities.
He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon.
You can sign up for the program with him and begin the tutoring next week.
I’m sure you’ll enjoy this community service and you’ll gain valuable experience at the same time.
It looks good on your resume, too, showing that you’ve had experience with children and that you care about your community.
If you’d like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by Professor Dodge’s office this week.
I hope you’ve all finished reading the assigned chapter on insurance so that you’re prepared for our discussion today.
But, before we start, I’d like to mention a few things your text doesn’t go into.
It’s interesting to note that insurance has existed in some form for a very long time.
The earliest insurance policies were what we are called bottomry（use boats as mortgage） contracts.
They provided shipping protection for merchants as far back as 3000 B.C.
In general, the contracts were often no more than verbal agreements.
They granted loans to merchants with the understanding that if a particular shipment of goods was lost at sea, the loan didn’t have to be repaid.
Interest on the loans varied according to how risky it was to transport the goods.
During periods of heavy piracy at sea, for example, the amount of interest and the cost of the policy went up considerably.
So, you can see how insurance helped encourage international trade.
Even the most cautious merchants became willing to risk shipping their goods over long distances, not to mention in hazardous weather conditions when they had this kind of protection available.
Generally speaking, the basic form of an insurance policy has been pretty much the same since the Middle Ages.
There are four points that were salient then and remain paramount in all policies today.
These were outlined in chapter six and will serve as the basis for the rest of today’s discussion.
Can anyone tell me what one of those points might be?
Located at the NASA Research Center in Iowa is a 5,000-gallon vat of water, and inside the tank is an underwater treadmill designed by Dava Newman, an aerospace engineer.
For four years Newman observed scuba divers as they simulated walking on the Moon and on Mars on her underwater moving belt.
She wanted to discover how the gravity of the Moon and of Mars would affect human movement.
To do this, Newman attached weights to the divers and then lowered them into the tank and onto the treadmill.
These weights were carefully adjusted so that the divers could experience underwater the gravity of the Moon and of Mars as they walked on the treadmill.
Newman concluded that walking on Mars will probably be easier than walking on the Moon.
The Moon has less gravity than Mars does, so at lunar gravity, the divers struggled to keep their balance and walked awkwardly.
But at Martian gravity, the divers had greater traction and stability and could easily adjust to a pace of 1.5 miles per hour.
As Newman gradually increased the speed of the treadmill, the divers took longer, graceful strides until they comfortably settled into an even quicker pace.
Newman also noted that at Martian gravity, the divers needed less oxygen. The data Newman collected will help in the future design of Martian space suits.
Compared to lunar space suits, Martian space suits will require smaller air tanks; and, to allow for freer movement, the elbow and knee areas of the space suits will also be altered.
Welcome to Everglades National Park.
The Everglades is a watery plain covered with saw grass that’s home to numerous species of plants and wildlife.
At one and a half million acres, it’s too big to see it all today, but this tour will offer you a good sampling.
Our tour bus will stop first at Taylor Slough.
This is a good place to start because it’s home to many of the plants and animals typically associated with the Everglades.
You’ll see many exotic birds， and, of course, our world famous alligators.
Don’t worry, there’s a boardwalk that goes across the marsh, so you can look down at the animals in the water from a safe distance.
The boardwalk is high enough to give you a great view of the saw grass prairie.
From there we’ll head to some other marshy and even jungle like areas that feature wonderful tropical plant life.
For those of you who’d like a closer view of the saw grass prairie, you might consider renting a canoe sometime during your visit here.
However, don’t do this unless you have a very good sense of direction and can negotiate your way through tall grass.
We’d hate to have to come looking for you.
You have the good fortune of being here in the winter—the best time of year to visit.
During the spring and summer, the mosquitoes will just about to eat you alive!
Right now they’re not so bothersome, but you’ll still want to use an insect repellent.
Thank you. It’s great to see so many of you interested in this series on “Survival in Outer Space.”
Please excuse the cameras, we’re being videotaped for the local TV stations.
Tonight I’m going to talk about the most basic aspect of survival—the space suit.
When most of you imagine an astronaut, that’s probably the first thing that comes to mind, right?
Well, without space suits, it would not be possible for us to survive in space.
For example, outer space is a vacuum—there’s no gravity or air pressure; without protection, a body would explode.
What’s more, we’d cook in the sun or freeze in the shade with temperatures ranging from a toasty 300 degrees above to a cool 300 degrees below zero Fahrenheit.
The space suit that NASA has developed is truly a marvel.
This photo enlargement here is a life-size image of an actual space suit worn by astronauts on the last space shuttle mission.
This part is the torso.
It’s made of seven extremely durable layers.
This thick insulation protects against temperature extremes and radiation.
Next is what they call a “bladder” of oxygen that’s an inflatable sac, filled with oxygen, to simulate atmospheric pressure.
This bladder presses against the body with the same force as the Earth’s atmosphere at sea level.
The innermost layers provide liquid cooling and ventilation.
Despite all the layers, the suit is flexible, allowing free movement so we can work.
Another really sophisticated part of the space suit is the helmet.
I brought one along to show you. Can I have a volunteer come and demonstrate?
Good evening. My name is Pam Jones, and on behalf of the Modern Dance club, I’d like to welcome you to tonight’s program.
The club is pleased to present the TV version of The Catherine Wheel, Twyla Tharp’s rock ballet.
本俱樂部很榮幸地介紹Catherine Wheel（凱薩琳車輪）的電視版，Twyla Tharp的搖滾芭蕾舞。
This video version of the ballet has been even more successful with audiences than the original theater production.
It includes some animation, slow motion, and stop-action freezes that really help the audience understand the dance.
The title of the piece refers to Saint Catherine, who died on a wheel in 307 A.D.
Nowadays, a Catherine wheel is also a kind of firework.
It looks something like a pinwheel.
Anyway, the dance is certainly full of fireworks!
You’ll see how Twyla Tharp explores one family’s attempt to confront the violence in modern life.
The central symbol of the work is a pineapple, but exactly what it represents has always created a lot of controversy.
As you watch, see if you can figure it out.
The music for this piece is full of the rhythmic energy of rock music.
It was composed by David Byrne.
Of the rock band Talking Heads?
（David Byrne）貌似是來自搖滾樂隊Talking Heads？
And the lead dancer in this version was Sara Rudner, who is perfectly suited to Tharp’s adventurous choreography.
Following the video, dance teacher Mary Parker will lead a discussion about the symbolism Ms. Tharp used.
伴隨著視頻，舞蹈老師Mary Parker將會引導一個關於Ms. Tharp所用的象徵主義的討論。
We hope you can stay for that.
So, enjoy tonight’s video and thank you for your support.
In our lab today, we’ll be testing the hypothesis that babies can count as early as five months of age.
The six babies here are all less than six months old.
You’ll be watching them on closed-circuit TV and measuring their responses.
The experiment is based on the well-established observation that babies stare longer if they don’t see what they expect to see.
First, we’re going to let two dolls move slowly in front of the babies.
The babies will see the two dolls disappear behind a screen.
Your job is to record, in seconds, how long the babies stare at the dolls when the screen is removed.
In the next stage, two dolls will again move in front of the babies and disappear.
But then a third doll will follow.
When the screen is removed, the babies will only see two dolls.
If we’re right, the babies will now stare longer because they expect three dolls but only see two.
It seems remarkable to think that such young children can count.
My own research has convinced me that they have this ability from birth.
But whether they do or not, perhaps we should raise another question.
Should we take advantage of this ability by teaching children mathematics at such a young age?
They have great untapped potential, but is it good for parents to pressure young children?
Before starting our tour of Monticello, I’d like to give you some historical facts that might help you appreciate what you see today even more.
Monticello was the very much loved home of Thomas Jefferson for over fifty years.
Jefferson, who was, of course, President, was also a great reader and language enthusiast.
He read widely on different subjects, including architecture.
He wasn’t formally trained in architecture, but as a result of his study and observation of other buildings, he was able to help design and build the house.
He chose the site himself, naming the estate “Monticello,” which means “little mountain” in Italian.
In fact, many of the ideas behind the design also came from the Italian architect Andrea Palladio, who lived in the sixteenth century and who had a great influence on the architecture of England.
Jefferson, however, ignored one of Palladio’s principles, that is, not to build in a high place.
Monticello’s elevation made the transportation of what was needed at the house—for example, food—especially difficult.
But the view from the estate would not be as spectacular if Jefferson had followed Palladio’s advice;
there really is no boundary between the house and the nature around it, and so Jefferson was able to look out on his beloved state of Virginia from his wonderful vantage point.
Now we’ll go on to Jefferson’s library.
Now that we’ve all introduced ourselves to the new members, let’s get down to work.
As the committee in charge of this year’s tree-planting project, we have several items on our agenda.
First, we have to review the budget.
The president has informed me that the trustees have set aside $3,000 for the purchase of trees and our environmental T-shirt sale netted a profit of $1,500.
Second, we have to finalize the choice of trees.
As you know, we’re working with Richardson’s Nursery again this year since everyone seemed pleased with the work he did for us last year.
Mr. Richardson has presented us with several choices within our price range that he thinks would meet our needs.
He’s sent us pictures of the trees for us to look at, but he wanted me to tell you that we’re welcome to visit the nursery if we want to see the trees themselves.
Lastly, we need to plan some kind of ceremony to commemorate the planting.
Several ideas, including a garden party of some sort, have been suggested.
So let’s get on with it and turn to the first order of business.
Welcome to the Four Winds Historical Farm, where traditions of the past are preserved for visitors like you.
Today, our master thatchers will begin giving this barn behind me a sturdy thatched roof, able to withstand heavy winds and last up to a hundred years.
How do they do it? Well, in a nutshell, thatching involves covering the beams or rafters, the wooden skeleton of a roof with reeds or straw.
Our thatchers here have harvested their own natural materials for the job, the bundles of water reeds you see lying over there beside the barn.
Thatching is certainly uncommon in the Untied States today.
I guess that’s why so many of you have come to see this demonstration.
But it wasn’t always that way.
In the seventeenth century, the colonists here thatched their roofs with reeds and straw, just as they had done in England.
After a while, though, they began to replace the thatch with wooden shingles because wood was so plentiful.
And eventually, other roofing materials like stone, slate, and clay tiles came into use.
It’s a real shame that most people today don’t realize how strong and long lasting a thatched roof is.
In Ireland, where thatching is still practiced, the roofs can survive winds of up to one hundred ten miles per hour.
That’s because straw and reeds are so flexible.
They bend but don’t break in the wind like other materials can.
Another advantage is that the roofs keep the house cool in the summer and warm in the winter.
And then, of course, there’s the roofs’ longevity—the average is sixty years, but they can last up to a hundred.
With all these reasons to start thatching roofs again, wouldn’t it be wonderful to see this disappearing craft return to popularity?