|She goes to school.
She went to school.
I am eating apples. 我在吃蘋果 Present event （現在式）
I eat apples. 我是吃蘋果的 Habitual fact （習慣常態）
Stative Verbs and Active Verbs
- 狀態動詞 : know / believe / have
動作動詞 : eat / go / hit
|狀態動詞 Stative verb :
|動作動詞Active verb :
|Past||He knew the answer.||He wrote a novel.|
|Present||He knows the answer.
He is knowing the answer.(x) →no progressive
|He is writing the letter. →always in progressive|
1) He knows the answer right now.
present tense →針對眼前問題，他知道答案
2) He always knows the answer.
habitual tense →他博學多聞，總是知道答案
|He (always) writes novels. 8|
• No action is involved
1) I am knowing the answer. (X)
2) She is believing in God. (X)
3) John is understanding your point. (X)
• But you can say:
- I am getting the answer.
I am trusting God.
I am trying to understand your point.
• Temporal information is not marked on verbs.
• Temporal adverbials
• Aspect marker le
|A. Where did you go yesterday?
B. I went to a ball game.
• Every verb needs to be marked.
• Temporal information is marked in verbs.
irregular verbs 不規則動詞
|無變化 形同、音同||set put cast||set put cast|
|改變末尾子音||send lend spend||sent lent spent|
|改變母音子音||go say keep||went said kept|
|改變母音||see run sit give take know come begin find write||saw ran sat gave took knew came began found wrote
He was lying.
He was lying there.
lie 說謊 lie-lied-lied
lie 過去式 lied — 過去分詞 lied — 現在分詞 lying
He lied to me about his age.
lie 躺 lie-lay-lain
過去式 lay — 過去分詞 lain — 現在分詞 lying
He lay flat on the sofa. 第三人稱沒加-s→過去式→無受詞→ 不及物的「躺」
lay 擺放 lay-laid-laid
過去式 laid — 過去分詞 laid — 現在分詞 laying
He lays the book on the sofa.
未來式 Future Tense
1) I will leave soon.
2) I am going to leave soon.
3) I am leaving soon.
Origins of different forms of future tense:
• “will”: wish/determination → future
• “be going to”: moving in space → moving in time 從空間到時間
• “be V-ing”: on-going for immediate future
1) I am leaving this afternoon. → 立即要離開
2) I am leaving next year. (?) →I will leave next year. (√)
will (Model Aux)
Formal /certain The distant future
be going to / be gonna (Complex Aux)
Less formal / less certain The near future
be V-ing (Progressive Aux)
Informal / pretty certain The immediate future
1) used to + V：
She used to play guitar, but not anymore.
2) would + V：
She would play guitar when feeling down.
1) I thought English was difficult, but it is not.
2) I thought English is difficult and still do.
Tense and Aspect:
|Tense (時點)||Aspect (觀點)|
|Event T in relation to Speech T 發生時間||A perspective of temporal properties 發生樣貌|
The same event – 3 different ways of describing it:
- A cat chased a dog.
A cat was chasing a dog.
A cat has chased a dog.
1) Simple aspect — an independent event viewed as as a whole
2) Progressive aspect — Be + V-ing: simultaneously on-going
3) Perfect aspect — have/has + PP， an event completed by a referent point
On-going Events 正在進行的活動
• 沉浸在活動中 Immersed in the middle of an event
• 將事件視為同時進行 Perceive the events as simulatneously on-going
（與其他事件一起發生 Coocurrin with another event）
• 放大視角 A zoom-in perspective
A. What did you do at 7 pm last night?
A. 你昨晚 7 點做了什麼？
B. I ate dinner at 7 pm last night. B. 我昨晚 7 點吃晚飯。
Simple past → a simple, wholistic event
B. I was eating dinner at 7 pm. B. 我晚上正在 7 點吃晚飯。
Progressive past → a zoom-in perspective → emphasizing it’s on-going at the time
（漸進式過去 → 放大視角 → 強調當時正在進行）
四種時態的“放大視角” ‘Zoom-in’ aspect with four types of tense
I was eating dinner at 7 pm (before now).
Simultaneously on-going at a past time
I am eating dinner at 7 pm (now).
I will be eating dinner at 7 pm (after now).
I would be eating dinner at 7 pm(everyday).
• I have taught for three years. (by now)
• I have lived here for twenty years. (by now)
When I came in, all students smiled at me. 當我進來時，所有的學生都對我微笑。
- an event as a whole viewed in distance
When I came in, all students were smiling at me. 我進來的時候，所有的學生都正對我微笑。
- an on-going event in the middle of happening
I did my homework last night.
I have done my homework.
1) Present Perfect : completed by the Present 由現在完成
2) Past Perfect: completed by a past time 由過去的時間完成
3) Future Perfect: completed by a future time 由未來時間完成
I have done my homework and eaten dinner.
I had done my homework before dinner
I will have watched TV before bed
I have eaten dinner (by now). 我吃過晚飯（現在）。
I had done my homework before I ate dinner. 在我吃晚飯之前，我已經完成了家庭作業。
I will have watched TV before I go to bed. 我會在睡覺前看電視。
I lived in Taipei for 22 years.
(單純描述「過去一段時間」發生的事) → 簡單式
I have lived in Taipei for 22 years since 1990.
(強調「到目前為止」所發生的事) → 完成式
• 標記完成事件的「起點」 I’ve lived in Taipei since 1990. (by now) (參照點是「現在」) I’ve lived in Taipei since 1990 until now. (1990至目前為止，都住在台北)
• 強調從「起點」至「參照點」為止，所完成的 動作或狀態
I had lived in Hsinchu for 10 years before Becky was born.
We moved to Taipei in 1990.
We have been living there for 22 years until now.
在貝基出生之前，我已經在新竹生活了 10 年。
我們於 1990 年搬到台北。
直到現在，我們已經在那裡生活了 22 年。
完成進行式 Perfect Progressive
1) I have been living in Taipei for 22 years.
2) I have been searching for my true love.
1) Simultaneously On-going — an event is in process and will keep on moving.
2) Zooming-in — speaker take a zoom-in aspect for the event
3) Simultaneous — 進行式強調事件「同時進行」
smiling at me 與 背景事件 I came in 同時發生 兩事件彼此重疊，並非先後獨立
Continue/Keep + V-ing
• Keep + V-ing may render slightly different meanings with different verbs:
• Continue/keep + Ving: 不斷重複 repetition as on-going
• The baby kept sucking his thumb (on and on). 嬰兒一直吮吸他的拇指（一次又一次）。
• He kept spraining his ankle (again and again). 他一直扭傷腳踝（一次又一次）。
→ 長時間中 間斷的動作(常常扭傷)
He started speaking English.
to speak → 開始講英文 → started and on-going 開始且持續
He stopped reading his book and listened. → Stopped from happening
He stop to read his book and listened.
To-V vs. V-ing
• 有些動詞可以接 V-ing 也可以接 to-V
She continued singing for three hours.
She continued to sing after lunch.
He went on singing . → 之前一直再唱歌
He went on to sing. → 做完某事之後才唱起來
Anteriority — ahead of the referent point 「事件」必然在「參照時間」之前發生
- He met his wife (A), found a job (B), and got married (C).
Before he found a job (B), he had met his wife (A) , and got married later (C).
[ (A) → (B) → (C) ] ——> 2. [ (B) → (A) → (C) ]
- She has read this book. (已結束)
- She has been reading this book.
She has been a teacher.
“Been to” vs. “Gone to”
1) He’s gone to Japan.
have gone to 完成「移動」的動作，人在路徑的另一端
• 動詞 go是動作，從一點「移動」向另一點
• Away from the speaker
2) He has been to Japan.
have been to 完成「處於」的狀態，人曾經「在那裏」
• Existing in some place.
|•Specifically marked in tense.
•To report the main event
我拖了地板，打掃了浴室，聽著 Bee Gees。
1) I mopped the floor and cleaned the bathroom, listening to the Bee Gees.
2) I mopped the floor and cleaned the bathroom while listening to the Bee Gees.
1) A. What does he do for a living?
B. He works at a gas station. (習慣式:長久穩定的工作)
2) A. What’s he doing these days?
B. He’s working at a gas station. (進行式:只是目前的工作)
The sun rises in the east.
The sun is rising in the east.
(進行式:此刻正在發生 ongoing event)
I’ve gotta → I’ve got to
語意等同助動詞 have to，表達「必須要」 在宴會中，妳需要先離開。
- I’ve got to go. → I’ve gotta go.
I’ve got to leave. → I’ve gotta leave.
情態助動詞 modal auxiliaries
• You must do your homework. ─ 責任好惡
• You must be his cousin! ─ 真實性
• You can do your homework. ─ 能力
• You can leave now! ─ 允許
• This can be your only chance. ─ 可能性
- 好壞 (責任/能力/好惡):
He should do his best You must work hard.
You can do it!
You may go now.
- 是非 (可能/真實/確定性) : truth/certainty
He should be here any minute. It must be him.
This can be bad.
It may be good for you.
• Modal adverbials
- He probably wrote a book.
She perhaps lived in this neighborhood.
Maybe he went to the States.
• Modal auxiliaries
- He should certainly work hard.
He may perhaps invite her over for dinner.
It may probably rain tomorrow.
1) I you work hard, you will get a good grade.
2) If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the outing.
3) I hope everything goes well for you.
1) I you will work hard, I will too.
2) If you will marry me, I will be the happiest man.
• Contrary to present fact
→ If she was a man, her life would be different.
• Contrary to past fact
→ If I had known it earlier, I would not have made the same choice.
— If she was a man, she would join the army.
— The problem would be solved if you could tell me that earlier.
— If she had come home yesterday, she would have enjoyed the dinner with us.
— The problem would have been solved if you could have told me that earlier.
時態和情態 Tense and Modality
• “Realis” of Present and Past tense
1) The cat is chasing the dog. (Present)
2) The cat chased the dog. (Past)
3) The cat has chased the dog. (Perfect)
• “Irrealis” of Future and Habitual tense
1) The cat will chase the dog.
2) The cat would chase the dog.
May vs. Might
• “Might” as a indicator of euphemism
1) He may do it
• straight to the point
• Simply express the certainty
2) He might do it
• Be euphemistic/indirect/polite
• Usually express the less certainty about truth.
You must become his friend.
It must be the case that you are his friend.
助動詞 Modal Auxiliaries
- He should go to the party.
He should be in the party.
- You may leave now. (permission)
You may be right.
A 1. joke: You can do it
(abilities) 2. Student: You can Can I leave go to now. restroom? (permission) 3. Teacher: You can I don’t be wrong. know. Can (possibilities) you?
“Given that” vs. “Providing that”
1.前提是 “Provided that”
— He will do the dishes provided that she cooks. 只要她做飯，他就會做菜。
(If she cooks, he will do the dishes.)
假設條件 To mark the non-real conditions.
2. “Given that”
–Given that she cooked, he volunteered to do the dishes. 既然她做飯，他就主動做飯。
(Since she cooked, he did the dishes.)
考慮已知事實 To take the known fact into consideration
Hope vs. Wish
• To hope for something we may obtain
- I hope tomorrow is a sunny day.
Hope for the best and plan for the worst.
• To wish for something beyond man’s control. （超越人為控制）